My question(s) pertain to Romans 10:1,9,13. Paul said that his “heart’s desire and [his] prayer to God for Israel is, that they might be saved.” If Paul believed in the ultimate salvation of all, why does he seem so concerned that Israel might not be saved? If Paul believed in the ultimate salvation of all, why didn’t he mention it here? Why didn’t he give any indication here that he takes consolation in that fact? Didn’t Paul teach that only those who confess, believe, and call upon the name of the Lord will be saved?
The key to this passage is to understand the difference between Israel nationally, and the Israelite individually. Paul in Romans chapters 9-11 is talking about the national condition of Israel, not each individual's standing. Hence, in verse one Paul's desire is that the nation of Israel would have salvation. Salvation from what? Salvation from the judgment God is placing upon her for rejecting His Son.
In Romans 10:6-8 Paul quotes Deuteronomy 30:11-14. Why? To demonstrate that God gave to the nation of Israel a message to believe. It was a message that was knowable to her as a nation.
“But what saith it? The word is nigh thee, even in thy mouth, and in thy heart: that is, the word of faith, which we preach” (Romans 10:8).
Who's mouth? – Israel’s (nationally) mouth. The purpose of verses 9-11 is not to teach salvation from hell, or individual salvation, but rather to show Israel what she could have and should have done to avoid her stumbling and subsequent fall. By simply exercising faith in Christ instead of going about to establish her own righteousness as Romans 10:3 states. This is why Paul will quote Isaiah 28:6 in Romans 10:11.
To understand verses 9 and 13 we must understand them in the context of Chapters 9-11. Hence, chapter 10 amplifies on the stumbling of Romans 9:32-33, pay close attention to the words in Romans 9:33:
“As it is written, Behold, I lay in Sion a stumblingstone and rock of offence: and whosoever believeth on Him shall not be ashamed.”
Whosoever believeth – the Messiah and His claims. This is a quote out of Isaiah 28:16. Israel as a nation had the opportunity to respond in faith to the claims and message of Christ as Israel's Messiah, and thus avoid the nationally judgment befalling her. She could have in faith embraced Jesus as her Messiah, and thus received salvation from her national judgment. Paul in Romans 10:1-13 explains why Israel stumbled over Christ and continues as a nation to do so – she (as a nation) had no faith. Romans 10 has nothing to do with the individual – but everything to do with Israel as a nation!